Although the concept of fair use does allow for a certain amount of interpretation, there are instances when the user would clearly need to obtain permission to copy a work. The following are uses when such permission would be necessary.
- Repetitive copying: The classroom or reserve use of copies materials in multiple courses over successive years will normally require advance permission from the owner of the copyright.
- Copying for profit: In no case should a faculty member charge students more than the actual cost of copying the material without the permission of the copyright owner.
- Consumable works: Works that are consumed in the classroom, such as standardized tests, exercises, and workbooks, require permission from the copyright owner.
- Creation of anthologies as basic text material for a course: Creation of a collective work or anthology by copying a number of copyrighted articles and excerpts to be purchased and used together as the basic text for a course will in most instances require the permission of the copyright owners. Such copying is more likely to be considered as a substitute for purchase of a book and thus less likely to be deemed fair use.