HIST 399 - Ancient Egypt

Chicago Style

What is Chicago Style?

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation. This style favored by some fields in the humanities, such as history and other humanities.


How do I Format In-Text Citations?

In Chicago style, each quotation or paraphrase must include a raised (superscript) numeral in the text after the item cited which refers to a footnote at the bottom of the page. The footnote is typically a simplified version of the full citation that is in your bibliography and it includes the page number(s) the original material can be found on. If you use the same source multiple times, the footnotes after that first use can be further simplified down to the  author's surname and the page number(s), plus a shortened form of the title (if more than four words) if you're using multiple sources by the same author. Below are some examples of the number-note method with both paraphrases and quotations.

By paraphrasing (or summarizing), you convey the author's original meaning in your own words.

The potential for truly integrated online research continues to develop at a rapid pace.1

Harvey comments on the fact that students who have a great interest in laboratory work attain good results.2

1. David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1990), 12.
2. Harvey, Condition of Postmodernity, 27.


A quotation is when a group of words are taken from a text or speech and repeated by someone other than the original author or speaker.

They point out that, “Informational labels are especially important for nonprint materials because they can furnish critical information which otherwise might not be evident from looking at the item on the shelf.”3

3. Nicholas Thomas and Antonio Negri, “Pedagogy and the Work of Michel Foucault,” JAC 28, no. 1-2(2008): 153.


How Do I Create the Bibliography?

  • Arrange your citations alphabetically by author’s last name
  • Arrange anonymous (no author) works by the first significant word in the title
  • Double-space between each entry
  • Indent the second line of each entry (a hanging indent)
  • Examples of which elements to include, proper order of elements, punctuation, etc. can be found on the websites linked from this page.


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