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PSCI 221: Soil & Water Conservation: Citing Sources

Northeastern Naturalist Citation Style

Common Sources

Citation Type Literature Cited In-Text Citation
Journal Article Brodie, E.D., Jr., M. Barnes, and E.D. Brodie III. 1980. Differential avoidance of mimetic salamanders by free-ranging birds: The effect of temperature. Science 208:181–182. (Brodie et al. 1980)
Website National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2000. Gulf of Mexico current data: 1990–1999. Available online at Accessed 14 February 2007. (NOAA 2000)
Book Conard, H.S., and P.J. Redfearn. 1979. How to Know the Mosses. Wm. C. Brown, Dubuque, IA. 302 pp. (Conrad & Redfearn 1979)

1. Three or more authors, use "et al." in your in-text citation, but list all authors as shown in the Literature Cited at the end of your work, as in Journal Article example above. If there are two authors, both of their last names appear in the in-text citation.

2. A group author, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), should be abbreviated in your in-text citation. See website example above.

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

An Annotated Bibliography is a list of sources you plan to use in your project with an explanation of what each source will contribute to your work. For this paper, your Annotated Bibliography should include at least 4 sources. Two must be from "peer reviewed" literature, and the other two may come from other credible sources.

Each entry will include: 

  1. A bibliographic citation in Northeastern Naturalist Style format for the source
  2. A few sentences in your own writing describing "specifically what that particular reference will contribute to the presentation" (Greenwood 2022).

Annotated Bibliography Formatting

  1. References should be in alphabetical order, just as they would appear in your References list.
  2. Your citations should have hanging indents (aka the first line is not indented, but subsequent lines are indented).
  3. Your annotations should be in paragraphs following each citation
  4. Your annotations should be indented.

*Hint: Library databases provide citations that you can copy and paste, and then check against one of the guides. Look for a Citation link, and then choose your style.